Essential elements of movement means the knowledge and demonstration of mechanically correct technique when executing a
movement skill.
FITT stands for the basic philosophy of what is necessary to gain a training effect from an exercise program.
The FITT acronym represents:
1. Frequency – How often a person exercises
2. Intensity – How hard a person exercises
3. Time – How long a person exercises
4. Type – What type of activity a person does when exercising
Health-related fitness incorporates the five major components of fitness related to improved health:
1. Cardio-respiratory endurance is the ability of the blood vessels, heart, and lungs to take in, transport, and utilize oxygen.
This is a critically important component of fitness because it impacts other components of fitness and decreases the risk of
cardiovascular diseases.
2. Muscular strength is the maximum amount of force a muscle or muscle group can exert.
3. Muscular endurance is the length of time a muscle or muscle group can exert force prior to fatigue.
4. Flexibility refers to the range of motion in the joints.
5. Body composition shows the amount of fat versus lean mass (bone, muscle, connective tissue, and fluids). While some fat
is essential for insulation and providing energy, too much fat can cause serious health problems.
Movement skills encompass locomotor, nonlocomotor, and manipulative movement:
1. Locomotor movement occurs when an individual moves from one place to another or projects the body upward (e.g.,
walking, jumping, skipping, galloping, hopping, jumping, sliding, running).
2. Nonlocomotor movement occurs when an individual moves in self-space without appreciable movement from place to
place (e.g., twisting, bending, stretching, curling).
3. Manipulative movement occurs when an individual controls a variety of objects with different body parts (e.g., throwing,
catching, kicking, striking, dribbling).
Personal assets refer to individual strengths and weaknesses regarding personal growth.
Skill-related fitness refers to components of physical fitness that contribute to the ability to successfully participate in sports:
1. Agility is the ability to rapidly and accurately change the direction of the whole body while moving in space.
2. Balance is the ability to maintain equilibrium while stationary or moving.
3. Coordination is the ability to use the senses and body parts in order to perform motor tasks smoothly and accurately.
4. Power is the amount of force a muscle can exert over time.
5. Reaction time is the ability to respond quickly to stimuli.
6. Speed is the amount of time it takes the body to perform specific tasks while moving.
Suggested Resources for Grades K-4
1. Station Games: Fun and Imaginative P.E. Lessons, by Maggie C. Burk
2. The Physical Educator's Big Book Of Sport Lead-up Games, by Guy Bailey
3. The Ultimate Playground & Recess Game Book, by Guy Bailey
4. P.E. Teacher's Skill-By-Skill Activities Program: Success-Oriented Sports Experience for Grades K-8, by Lowell F. "Bud" Turner
5. Silver Bullets: A Guide to Initiative Problems, Adventure Games and Trust Activities, by Karl E. Rohnke
6. Quicksilver, by Karl E. Rohnke
7. Cowstails & cobras: A guide to ropes courses, initiative games, and other adventure activities, by Karl Rohnke
8. Field Day Survival Guide by S&S Worldwide
9. No Gym? No Problem: Physical Activities for Tight Spaces, by Charmain Sutherland
10. YogaKids, by Marsha Wenig
11. Ready-to-Use P.E. Activities, by Joanne M. Landy & Maxwell J. Landy
12. Celebration Games: Physical Activities for Every Month, by Barb Wnek
13. No Standing Around in My Gym, by J.D. Hughes